The business model of an electric car charging station (pile) refers to a mode in which electric car users select a charging station (pile) at a fixed location to directly charge the car’s battery when the car’s electric energy is about to be exhausted. This is the first business model considered for electric car charging stations. Under this business model, electric car users directly charge the batteries of electric cars at charging stations (piles), consume power products instantly and pay for them through on-site payment, to complete the transaction. To this end, the construction of a corresponding electric car charging and billing system and the introduction of a centralized information management platform are an important part of the construction of electric car charging stations (piles).
Judging from the actual operation of electric car charging stations in various countries, according to the differences in technology and charging methods, the business models of electric car charging stations can basically be divided into two modes: “full car charging” and “battery replacement”.
1) Car charging mode
The car charging mode is the focus of research and experimentation in many countries. This mode considers the battery and the car as a whole. The key to its large-scale development is to be able to develop and produce “large capacity, low cost, fast charging, and long life”. Storage battery products meet the needs of users in terms of convenience, and specifically include two types of conventional charging and fast charging.
In the electric car charging mode, the profitable methods of conventional charging and fast charging are the same, but the charging fees charged to users are different. This mode of operation requires the participation of enterprises and individuals in the industry, including electric car manufacturers, battery manufacturers, intermediate operators (station construction companies), energy supply companies and charging stations, electric car users and government departments.
In the operation of this mode, firstly, energy supply companies build electric car charging stations by paying a certain station construction fee to intermediate operators (station building companies). When users come to the charging station to charge electric cars, the energy supply company and the charging company The station charges users a certain charging fee to realize its own profit.
2) Battery-swap mode
The battery-swap mode is also called the rental battery mode, which is an idea to consider the car and the battery separately. The user only buys a car, and a dedicated battery leasing company is responsible for the purchase, leasing, charging, rapid replacement and management of the battery. It allows users to get energy supply as easily as “car refueling”. Its operating mode is to centrally charge standardized batteries through various battery-swap stations. When electric car users need to supplement energy, they can easily go to any replacement station to replace charged batteries.
After the energy supply company purchases the battery, it pays a certain station construction fee to the intermediate operator (station construction company) to carry out the construction of the replacement station. After purchasing a “naked car”, an electric car user can go to the battery-swap station to go through the corresponding “lease procedures” and pay a certain rent to put the electric car into use. The leasing procedures and rent are negotiated by the relevant departments. Because the user is replaced with a fully charged battery, plus some other costs, the price of the leased battery is definitely more expensive than the user’s own charging at home, but it is definitely far lower than the fuel. cost of. The user not only has to pay the rent during the use of the battery, but also pays the corresponding electricity fee to the battery-swap station according to the consumption of the battery every time the battery is replaced.
In order to replace the battery more quickly, before the car that needs to replace the battery enters the station, the user should submit a battery-swap request to the replacement station, so that the replacement station can arrange parking positions, notify the battery-swap warehouse to prepare the battery for the whole car replacement, and transport it to the replacement station. Storage battery area, ready to unload equipment. After the car enters the station, drive the car to the exact position of the battery-swap area according to the dispatching instructions, and prepare to replace the battery. Before replacing the battery, you must carefully review the fault record of the on-board monitoring device to check whether the car battery is faulty during operation. If there is a fault record, record the fault information (including fault location and type). After clearing the fault record, replace the battery. Disconnect the high and low voltage power supply of the whole car first, and then unload the battery. When unloading, place the faulty battery box and the non-faulty battery box separately. For the faulty battery box, send the faulty battery and fault information to the maintenance workshop together, and send the faultless battery box to the charging area for charging. After unloading, load the battery that has been prepared. Turn on the high and low voltage power supply of the whole car, and perform fault diagnosis again to ensure that the car is running normally after the battery is replaced and the car is driven out of the battery-swap area.
Which mode to choose for the operation of electric car charging stations should focus on the core goal of “promoting the development and popularization of the electric car industry quickly, healthily, and efficiently”, combined with technological development trends and practical conditions for comprehensive consideration, mainly including the following three Aspects:
(1) The overall economy and convenience of users are related to the competitiveness of the operating model.
(2) The profit model of energy supply companies determines the sustainable development capability of electric car charging stations.
(3) The impact on the operation of the urban power grid is a key factor for the safe and efficient operation of the entire urban power grid.